Thursday, May 28, 2020

Bibliography On Relationship Between Obesity And Hypertension - 825 Words

Bibliography On Relationship Between Obesity And Hypertension (Annotated Bibliography Sample) Content: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OBESITY AND HYPERTENSIONStudents nameLectures nameCourse titleDatePART ADeMarco,V.G., Aroor,A.R., Sowers,J.R. (2014). The pathophysiology of hypertension in patients with obesity. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 10(6), 364-376. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2014.44The authors use epidemiological data to analyze global obesity and high blood pressure. They find that obesity is as a result of mainly a combination of an increase in food intake and reduction of physical exercises. They use this global data on obesity to test their hypothesis that hypertension results from obesity. Obesity is becoming a burden in the world because about one billion people are overweight or obese. Countries like the USA have 33% of the population obese. Date obtained from Framingham Heart Study shows the relationship between hypertension and obesity. Analysis of data from the study supports their hypothesis. The number of cases of hypertension increases with increasing BMI in both men and women. The data indicates that in every increment of 5% percent of weight, there is a 20 to 30% increased risk of getting hypertension. Researchers also studied the mechanisms or the pathophysiology of increased hypertension among the obese. They link metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity to upper body obesity. Further studies in the 1980s revealed that an increase in the risk of developing hypertension is attributed to increasing waist-to-hip ratio. These complications which include hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance plus the abdominal obesity are the key causes of cardiorenal and metabolic syndromes. Reports from recent clinical trials suggest that a reduction of weight by 10% is an important non-pharmacological therapy of reducing high blood pressure. In this article, the authors review the pathophysiology of hypertension in obesity and relationship among many factors that contribute to the condition including dysfunctional immunity. They also hig hlight the treatment of hypertension due to obesity in patients.PART BFrom investigation made obesity is a preventable disease resulting from overweight. It is defined as excess body weight compared to height. From the data obtained from the United States National Library of Medicine, by 2030, about 20% will be suffering from obesity and USA alone will have an obesity prevalence of 85% (Bagchi Preuss, 2013). While the growth rate in most countries seems to have become zero, morbid obesity stills continue to increase. Obesity is a risk of hypertension. The criteria used for diagnosing obesity is the body mass index (BMI). A BMI of at least 30 is classified as obesity. Another criterion uses waist circumference measurements to find out abdominal obesity. A circumference of at least 94 cm is considered as abdominal adiposity in European men and at least 80cm is considered as abdominal adiposity in European women. The fat in the viscera is thought to be associated with metabolic distur bances predisposing the victims to cardiovascular conditions such as high blood pressure (Bakris Sorrentino).In children, obesity is classified differently from adults since the composition of the body changes as the child grows. This also varies between boys and girls. The most recent method of classification of obesity and overweight in children is known as the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. These guidelines show references from birth to early adulthood. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the USA uses the CDC growth references currently to highlight sex and age-specific BMI percentiles. At least 85th percentile and 95th percentile is defined as overweight for age and sex respectively, while 95th percentile represent obesity in children.Risk factors for obesity include excess energy intake, reduced physical exercise, excess or little sleep, stress, some drugs like steroids, genetics, some certain diseases such as Cushings disease. Environment al issues like viruses and living in desert regions poses a risk of obesity also. Among the many consequences of obesity in the body is a risk of developing hypertension. Research shows that obesity is associated with vasodilation, increased blood flow and hypertension (In Bray In Bouchard, 2014). Glomerular filtration, cardiac output, and sodium retention increases. All these lead to hypertension. At the same time, hormone leptin, produced mainly by abdominal fat t cause weight loss and reduce satiety causes hypertension by activating the sympathetic system (Zhou University of Ottawa, 2011). During this process, renal system is activated to alter the...

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Quality of Financial Reporting After the Passage of...

Research Proposal The Quality of financial Reporting after the passage of Sarbanes-Oxley Act Dr. Hassan Ahmed Assistant Professor at Cameron University Abstract The complexity of business environment necessitates a set of required disclosures in a timely fashion. The full disclosure principle under U.S. GAAP is based on a vague definition that cannot be clearly implemented. The cost of disclosures can be significantly large and can have a negative impact on companies’ future earnings (small businesses). The purpose of this article is to examine the disclosure establishment of pre and post Enron, the effect of those disclosures on both corporations and on potential investors and to examine whether financial reporting quality†¦show more content†¦Arthur Levitt’s top priority throughout his tenure with SEC was, to protect potential investors. Mr. Levitt’s policy was to increase the quality of financial reporting and strengthen the role of the corporate audit committees. Contingent liabilities are often referred as off-balance sheet activities and they are neither recognized as assets or liabilities nor the y are reported on the balance sheet simply because GAAP does not recognize them as such. Enron and many other large companies were successful to keep billions of dollars of debt off-balance sheet (Chandra, et al, 2006). Title 4 section 401, j of SOX’s enhanced financial disclosures required the disclosure of all material off balance sheet transactions, obligations, arrangements and any material current or future that will have an effect on the financial condition (SOX, 2002). Economics and Accounting literature devoted considerable amount of time to analyze the cost-benefit of SOX and found that US firms incur 6.1 billion was spent of manpower, IT and consulting services (CFO, Bergen 2004 and 2005). The debate of whether the cost of complying SOX is cost effective, is an impetus toward a policy change, however, one can ask, ever since the SOX implementation, how the quality of financial reporting has effected? Research Question and Hypothesis Development Many studies have addressed disclosure mismanagement of financial statements before and after Enron scandal, however, the few studies that have tackledShow MoreRelatedThe Sarbanes Oxley Act ( Sox )1526 Words   |  7 Pages Essay #1- Tax Advantages and Disadvantages of Sarbanes-Oxley Eric Kitts Liberty University â€Æ' Introduction The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) of 2002 was implemented to deter fraudulent activities amongst companies by monitoring and auditing financial activities as well as set up internal controls to aid in the safeguard of company funds and investor’s interest. SOX also regulates the non-audit tax services (NATS) that can be performed by an auditing firm. 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The social responsibility implications of the mandatory publication of corporate ethics will be assessed. One of the main criticisms of SOX has been its implementation costs, and this specific criticism will be addressed in regards to smaller org anizationsRead MoreAnalysis of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act3143 Words   |  13 PagesAnalysis of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act Abstract The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) was enacted in July 30, 2002, by Congress to protect shareholders and the general public from fraudulent corporate practices and accounting errors and to maintain auditor independence.    In protecting the shareholders and the general public the SOX Act is intended to improve the transparency of the financial reporting.    Financial reports are to be certified by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and Chief Financial Officer (CFO)Read MoreEthics and Financial Reporting2997 Words   |  12 PagesEthics and Financial Reporting AMBA 630 Executive Summary Reacting to a flood of accounting scandals and media outcry, the U.S. Congress passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) in July 2002. 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Conteh; Ruby Proctor Garcia; Kathleen M. Parry; Joseph M. Schmerling; Jaime Ulloa Auditing Theory and Practice 0902 ACCT422 4021 Due: April 29, 2009 Table of Contents Page Number What is the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002? 3 Why was SOX established? 4 When did SOX take effect? 5 What companies were affected and how? 6 What does SOX compliance requireRead MoreThe Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 20024779 Words   |  20 PagesThe Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002Introduction2001-2002 was marked by the Arthur Andersen accounting scandal and the collapse of Enron and WorldCom. Corporate reforms were demanded by the government, the investors and the American public to prevent similar future occurrences. Viewed to be largely a result of failed or poor governance, insufficient disclosure practices, and a lack of satisfactory internal controls, in 2002 George W. Bush signed into law the Sarbanes-Oxley Act that became effective onRead MoreLge 500 Week 10 Discussion 12 Essay2300 Words   |  10 PagesCauses Please respond to the following: Analyze at least three underlying causes for the creation of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Next, rank the causes that you have analyzed from the most important to the least important to the creation of the Act. Explain your rationale. In the later part of 1990s, there was an epidemic of accounting scandals which arose with the disclosure of financials transgressions by trusted corporate executives. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Systems Analysis And Design Of Iain s Co - 2733 Words

Systems Analysis and Design Help sheet: Introduction: For this unit I have been asked to produce a database for ‘Iain’s Co’ who are a large building service company, but before that I have to plan everything out by analysing and designing the database for the company’s newly taken over smaller company. Scenario: Iain’s Co are a large building company who at present have employed IT technicians in order for their technical aspects to be managed and to also support the IT users in the company. In recent time Iain’s Co s have taken over a smaller company who require some help with their database as they want to include some new features that can improve and link both company data’s together in order to manage the two sites on one database. Outline principles of systems analysis: What is a system analysis? A system analysis is a data processing method that is widely used in the business department for breaking down a problem into different parts to reduce the difficulty of the problem and identifying the needs to solve the problem more easily and more efficiently. This will be helping Iain’s Co greatly because they need a system that can break down problems so that it reduces the difficulty of the problem. What is an SSADM? Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method is also more commonly known as SSADM, which is an amalgamation of text and diagrams through the entire life cycle of a system design, from the planning of the design idea to the actual design of theShow MoreRelatedMy Personal Plan2317 Words   |  10 Pagesexercise 10 11 13 10. References. 13 11. Bibliography 14 Personal Development Plan â€Å"If you dont design your own life plan, chances are youll fall into someone elses plan. And guess what they have planned for you? Not much.† - Jim Rohn (cited @ thinkexist.com) 1. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Paradox of Household Decision Making

Question: Discuss about theParadox of Household Decision Making. Answer: Introduction: Consumer often reacts and takes impulsive decision in their daily life. Survey suggests that they often take irrational decision while making a choice of their consumption behavior. Households often think that they are risk taker in their decisions (Himmelweit et al. 2013). On other hand, people are expected to act rationally and invest on fixed assets like purchasing a house which can in future generate further utility. Consumers are also expected to invest on equity and take up their liabilities of household mortgages and loans. There are several factors that collectively dominate the complex micro-financial decision of any consumer. Few of them are: the rate of interest as offered by the banks of that nation, their capacity to invest after meeting up the expenditure of their daily chores and the existing rate of inflation on the economy (Diamond and Rothschild 2014). The essay focuses on the impact of such factors on the decisions taken by the dwellers of U.K region. After the nation existed from their alliance from Brexit, it has faced a continuously downfall in their interest rate. A single component in turn dampens the entire economic condition by impacting the immediate savings, future scope of investment. This essay also focuses on the life cycle hypothesis to analyze the uncertainty principles, especially the weak uncertainty and the strong uncertainty that drives a rational consumer into their decision process (Hanushek et al. 2016). Discussion: This essay initially focuses on the basic problem that persists in the economy. Then the essay briefly explains the concept of weak and strong uncertainty that the people exhibits through their behavior. Peoples balance between the risk taken and their choice for a secured future portrays the rationality that they are imbibed with (Belke et a. 2016). U.K has been chosen and the countrys overall behavior has been highlighted keeping in mind their recent exit from the European Union. The basic economic theory has evolved with incomplete information and uncertainty involved in investment. Here the profit maximization theory is dispensed and the theory rejects the predictable individual behavior. The approach incorporates the societal evolution and the economic system with adoptive mechanism. Situation where the fore sight is uncertain the profit maximizing option is invalid. After the Brexit, the whole economy in the European Union has undergone a change. In this change in the economic environment, individuals behavior is motivated by the prevalent uncertainty and incomplete information (Fichtner et al. 2016). Behavioral traits like imitative, trial and error behavior and adaptive behavior are observed among the individuals. The Rational Choice Theory is a framework to understand the formal setting of the social and economic behavior. The basic argument of the theory is based on the aggregate behavior of the society. The aggregate behavior results from the behavior of the individual actors. It mainly focuses on the determinants that influence the behavior of the individual (Jaeger et al. 2013). The individual chooses from the available options. The individual in the household makes his choice depending upon the available information and the possibility of information. The individual decision inclined toward the cost-effective possibility. Let us assume that the consumer have a life span over T years and has W amount of wealth. His annual income is Y. let us assume that he retires at the age R. the initial wealth is W and his lifetime earnings is RY. Thus, he divides his entire wealth that is W+RY over his entire lifetime. Hence, his consumption C = (W+RY)T.= (1/T)W + (R/T)Y= a(W/Y) + b. this equation denotes the average propensity to consume. Wealth does not change proportionately with income from year to year. So the expected result should be that high income results in low propensity to consume (Dow 2014). However, in the long run both wealth and income increases simultaneously which leads to a constant ratio W/Y implying constant average propensity to consume. max u(az + (w-a) r) dF(z). a Now, the change in wealth changes with the individuals preference toward the risk. It is assumed that two individual are having identical wealth in their savings account, but one is having H amount of money extra in his account. Thus, both the individual is ready to take a risky gamble. This behavioral trait is captured in decreasing absolute risk aversion (Frank 2013). And the individual decides to invest his wealth W. He has two choices: i) safe with return r ii) risky asset with random return z. the utility function of the individual is a concave utility function denoted u. He buys an amount of the risky asset. If, he chooses the risky asset and invest the remaining W-a in the safe asset, then the utility function will be given by az+ (W-a) r. the optimizing problem is given, u(a(z-r) + wr) (z-r) dF(z) = 0. Now the first order condition for this problem is given by: Here, the person is risk-neutral, so u(x) = ax for a constant , the marginal return in investment is Wr + a((z)-r) which is either positive or negative. The risk-neutral investor cares only about the expected return on his investment. Hence, he puts his wealth into the asset, which has a higher expected return. If the investor has a positive rate of return that is greater than r, a risk adverse investor will still invest at least some amount the asset with risky return. Thus, in the example of interest rate this argument is applicable (Frank 2013). If the rate of interest increases, a risk adverse individual will tend to invest more in that asset. On the other hand, a risk neutral individual will optimally allocate his asset between the risky asset and the risk free asset to maximize his return on his investment. The essay tries to see the effect of the basic changes in the economy of United Kingdom due to the change in factor of interest rate of the country as guided by their Central Bank (Kierzenkowski et al. 2016). Also people often have the notion of consuming more when they do not get sufficient interest from their spending. They are more reluctant to believe and act as accordingly to the situations that they presently sees. They cannot interpret the amount that they need to save for the future as the future always remains unseen. The government of the United Kingdom has been reducing the countrys rate of interest for a few years in a row. The reason behind this is to increase the level of investment in the country. This will in turn increase the aggregate demand in the country. The interest rate has been reduced by the Bank of England after the country exited from the European Union (Kierzenkowski 2016). The Foreign Domestic Investment in the country has been reduced since the Brexit. T he reduction in interest rate is supposed to increase the consumption and reduce savings presently in the short run. In the long run, the macroeconomic variable changes. This will make taking a decision hard for the households. People choose their retirement packages and savings according to their working age and old age. The trend of low interest rate has been ensured by the authorities to increase the inflation rate. The interest rate in the country for the last ten years can be depicted in a graph as given below: Figure 1: Interest rate in the United Kingdom for the last ten years. Source: As created by the author. The people of the country are supposed to take their decision on consumption based on the assets and liabilities. The households take their decisions according to their income and the rate of interest in the country. The interest rate determines the value of their assets and liabilities. The government has taken the monetary expansionary policy assuming that the households will make a rational decision. As the claim done by Merton, people are not trained for making these kinds of decisions. People of the United Kingdom have the task ahead of disaggregating their life cycle economic decisions and act accordingly (Lee 2016). They have to make micro financial decisions which involve risk. They have to allocate their asset and estimate the optimal level of utility they can derive. The main target remains as increasing the total savings in such a way that the life after retirement goes smoothly. The decision taken by the government of reducing the interest rate will reduce the size of the retirement package for the working people in the country. This presents a situation of uncertainty in the economy. The uncertainty and risks are interrelated hugely. The rational households are assumed to show a positive attitude towards risk taking and show responsible behavior through financial actions. The life cycle hypothesis proposes that an individuals consumption and savings are planned over his entire life cycle. Their intention is to even out the consumption over his entire life cycle in the best possible way. He prefers to accumulate and save when he is earning. In his retirement age he is dis-saving. The life-cycle hypothesis is based on the assumption that individual is trying to maintain a stable living standard (Hanushek et al. 2016).. This does not imply that he saves a lot in one period and spends all his savings in the next period. They tries to maintain an even consumption level throughout their life span. To understand the situation in the economy of the United Kingdom the life cycle hypothesis can be considered which will give the paradoxical behavior of the households a theoretical shape. Risk and uncertainty will also be incorporated in the report to assess the behavior. The people of the United Kingdom have the task ahead of disaggregating their total life span decisions into small parts (Shoemaker 2016). Their total possible income has to be divided in these parts for consumption purposes. Some of the parts will fall in the working age and some will not. These can be incorporated in two categories where an individual is working and when he is not or retired. The savings from his working age added with the interest he gained from saving will be his total expendable income for his retired life. In such a situation the interest rate, mortgage rate and other policies taken by the government creates uncertain situations. If the interest rate falls further the amount of money the perso n was supposed to get after retirement will decrease (Jaeger et al. 2013). Hence the person has to understand the present and future risks involved in an investment. The questions the individual has to ask himself before making an investment are: whether the growth in the stock market will be a steady one? The real estate will show a boom in the future? Is there any chance of the government of the United Kingdom to default on its debt? The decisions should make sense with the economic rationality which will consider the risk, weak and strong uncertainty regarding the decision of investment. To make a well informed decision regarding future, the individuals have to know all these theories and act accordingly. Merton argued that common people in the United Kingdom do not have the required training of doing so. Conclusion: The general people are unaware of the complexities that are involved in an economic system. They make their decisions on the basis of the situations that they see in their daily life. Most of them are unaware of the complexities involved in their decision process. They always try to maximize their consumption and also save for their future. They are expected to take risk in their investment decision by spending their hard earned money on buying fixed assets whereas save for the future so that they can have a secured life in their autumns of life (Himmelweit 2013). Whenever people get more interest rate they start to save more with the expectation of higher amount of interest. On other hand they start more consumption as a result of lowering interest rate. But at the same time saving less will reduce the scope of their future consumption. The government can spread financial awareness amongst the people. Also an extra curriculum can be added at the high school level so that the student s irrespective of the stream of subjects that they undertake can learn the very basics of financial components and take a rational decision in their life ahead. A successful implementation of this curriculum and an overall financial awareness campaign may prove efficient in removing the paradox that exists in the economy. References: Belke, A., Belke, A., Dubova, I. and Osowski, T., 2016. Policy Uncertainty and International Financial Markets: The case of Brexit. CEPS Working Document No. 429, December 2016. Diamond, P. and Rothschild, M. eds., 2014.Uncertainty in economics: readings and exercises. Academic Press Dow, S.C., 2014. Addressing uncertainty in economics and the economy.Cambridge Journal of Economics, p.beu022. Fichtner, F., Groe Steffen, C., Hachula, M. and Schlaak, T., 2016. Brexit decision is likely to reduce growth in the short term.DIW Economic Bulletin,6(26/27), pp.301-307. Frank, K., 2013. Risk, uncertainty and profit. Hanushek, E.A., Schwerdt, G., Woessmann, L. and Zhang, L., 2016. General education, vocational education, and labor-market outcomes over the life-cycle.Journal of Human Resources. Himmelweit, S., Santos, C., Sevilla, A. and Sofer, C., 2013. Sharing of resources within the family and the economics of household decision making.Journal of Marriage and Family,75(3), pp.625-639. Jaeger, C.C., Webler, T., Rosa, E.A. and Renn, O., 2013.Risk, uncertainty and rational action. Routledge. Kierzenkowski, R., Pain, N., Rusticelli, E. and Zwart, S., 2016. The Economic Consequences of Brexit Knight, F.H., 2012.Risk, uncertainty and profit. Courier Corporation. Lea, R., 2016. The economic growth rate in 2016Q3: some slowdown after the second quarter pick-up.Arbuthnot Banking Group,12. Schoenmaker, D., 2016. The UK Financial Sector and EU Integration after Brexit: The Issue of Passporting.

Friday, April 17, 2020

What black belt means to me Essays - Martial Arts, Sports

"What black belt means to me" When I first started taekwondo about 2 years ago I didn't want to do it, but my mom made me and now I am happy I didn't stop and I am now applying for my black belt. First I will talk about how a black belt should represent their school and art, then I will talk about some attributes a black belt should have, then I'll explain how I will better myself if I become a black belt. What black belt means to me is someone that has taken the time out of their life to put forth the effort to better themselves by working out at the school. A black belt is someone who is strong and courageous and tries as hard as they can, they keep going to make themselves better, for example when a black belt is sparring they may get tired but they keep going and show perseverance. A black belt helps the junior belts when they have a question about their form or one steps and they can answer their question without help from an instructor. Some attributes a black belt should have is being respectful of everyone not just senior belts, they should be respectful of their peers and everyone they meet. A black belt should understand the art that their instructor taught them and respect it. A black belt should represent their school and art in a positive way, some ways that a black belt could show this is by disciplining themselves, patience, honesty, and not hurting others by fighting or bullying. A couple ways i will represent my school and art is when I get my black belt I better myself by working out not just at my school but at the gym and at home either by practicing all of my poomsae and one-steps or just working out like doing squats, running, push up and sit ups. I will only defend myself if necessary. Everything I do will be to the best of my abilities and I will try hard at everything I do because with this new belt I have more responsibilities.

Friday, March 13, 2020

The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hiter essays

The Rise and Fall of Adolf Hiter essays In the Rise and Fall of Adolf Hitler there are many hidden facts that many people including myself would not know if they didnt read the book themselves. Hitler had grown up in Austria and later moved to Germany, but then he found himself broke and homeless in the streets of Austria again. Hitler was incredibly smart and knew when to ploy his actions but in the end he became greedy which led to his defeat. In the end of his life he began to deteriorate and have frequent nervous breakdowns due to dishonest generals and the conquering of his new land by Mother Russia and the United States. Hitler was a strong willed man and if he put his mind to something he would do it, this is the scariest part of him, sure he had killed millions of innocent people but in his mind they were just in the way of his goal to eventually take over Europe and if he thought he could possibly the world. He was brought up in a strict family where everything was precious, once he had left for school in Austria he had no money or place to stay and people spat and made fun of him on the streets, especially the Jewish people, this is what created his hated towards Jews. During his war campaign he only took over countries he knew he could scare into surrendering or defeat, but towards the end his greed for power and land made him turn on his ally Russia and from then on his power went sliding down hill. Hitler would not give up in his efforts to conquer, he placed his armies in positions that would lead to the death of them all but by this time he had become delusional and not caring about the l ives of his own people. This was not a fight for the Fatherland but for Hitler himself. There are many interesting things about Hitler that were exposed in the book that a standard person would not know. Such as when Hitler was in his youth trying to get into college, he was poor, homeless, and had no support at all. With nowhere to sleep h...

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

A 2000 word review of Mark Deuzes Media Work and 2000 word self Essay

A 2000 word review of Mark Deuzes Media Work and 2000 word self evaluation - Essay Example His remarks here refer to conditions and setting of liquid life. Among the conditions Deuze is referring to include the challenge and opportunities of precarious labour, contingent employment, and a structural sense of authentic or perceived job insecurity. The first liquid life condition that Deuze refers to is the challenges and opportunities that are resultant of the current contingent or reliant employment environment. This situation, as noted by Ulrich Beck, reflects the fundamental hesitant prospects of the current work-styles throughout the society which are marked by uncertainty, inconsistency and risks (Deuze, 2006). Deuze notes that it is the nature of contemporary freedom that manifests itself most openly in the noteworthy change of people’s career from a chain of more or less expected achievements. Such is a result of an enduring contract to a continuous reshuffling of job bits and pieces in what has been heralded as portfolio work life (Deuze, 2006). Such reshuffle makes life liquid in nature. Another condition of liquid life that referred by Deuze is that precarious labour environment in the contemporary transition from life to work and the overall present employment patterns. Using Zygmunt Bauman’s sketch, Deuze notes that stability and solidity, which were at one-time major hallmarks of a health organisation have also become signs of organisation’s weakness. This is a liquid life because such global integration introduces a deep-seated aspect of unpredictability of work, leading to failure or success of the local production process becoming entirely dependent on the fluctuations in the worldwide network. Consequently, Deuzes’s reference to liquid life is relevant to the perceived job insecurity as it reflects the contemporary workforce behaviours. He notes that such patterns include adaptive response, permanent change, and continual innovation, all expressed as the exclusive philosophies of workforce flexibility.